Sunlight: Full sun
Maturity: 100-150 days
Height: 3 to 6 feet
Spacing: 2 to 4 feet apart, 3 to 4 feet between rows
Native to the Mediterranean, growing artichokes (Cynara scolymus) require cool nights and warm days. Aside from providing delicious, unique finger food for the table, the plants themselves are beautiful! Artichokes grow up to 5 feet across and almost as high with beautiful silvery-green foliage.
The amazing artichoke offers a superb nutty flavor with several health benefits. Tender globes are packed with vitamins C and K, minerals and dietary fiber. Artichokes are also on the USDA’s list of top antioxidant foods.
Fun Fact: Castroville, California is known as the “Artichoke Center of the World” and celebrates an annual festival for the vegetable. Marilyn Monroe was crowned Castroville’s first Artichoke Queen in 1947.
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Each spring, mix organic compost or pure forest humus into your growing area (see How to Prepare Garden Soil for Planting). Artichokes require sandy, fast-draining soil and cool temperatures to thrive. They need regular water for an ample harvest, but if you just like the look of the plant and don’t want to eat these tender thistles, they will survive on very little water. Artichokes are susceptible to freezing and do best where the temperature remains constant year round.
How to Plant
For best production, sow artichoke seeds in the spring after frost danger is past, but before temperatures go above 50°F. Ideally, the seeds or seedlings should stay in this range for about 2 weeks. This special treatment encourages plants to produce more buds. After this stage, their ideal growing temperature range is between 55°F and 75°F.
Grow globe artichokes in a location with full sun from bare root stock in January or from container grown stock later in the spring. To cultivate artichokes in cold winter climates, protect the root with several inches of straw mulch. Expert cold-weather gardeners go one better and grow them outdoors in large containers, and then move them to a protected location when the temperature drops. Fertilize (after you see greenery) with a small amount of all-purpose fish fertilizer. Micronutrients from seaweed extract are also beneficial.
Artichokes are ready to harvest when the heads are closed tightly and squeak slightly when squeezed. If you wait for them to open, they will be too tough to eat. Search the interior of the plant when picking because the chokes hide in the foliage. Small artichokes can be eaten whole without removing the inside spiny bud.
Artichokes take at least 110-150 days to reach maturity, if planting from seed and 100 days from divisions. Most do not flower until the second year of growth.
Once the harvest is over, cut the plants back to 1-2 inches off the ground to try for a second harvest. New sprouts will form at the base of the plant. At the end of the season, allow the plant to dry out after the leaves begin to turn yellow. Once the foliage has died down and dried, remove it from the plant and put down a layer of organic compost to enrich the soil for next years crop.
Insects and Diseases
Seed Saving Instructions
Artichoke flower heads are cut when completely open and beginning to show their white seed plumes. Store the flower heads in a dry location away from direct sunlight until dry and brittle. Place one of the dry flower heads in a feed sack or canvas bag on a concrete surface. Pound the base of the blossom with a hammer and allow the down to float out of the bag. The seed is heavy and will remain behind, but should be removed from the bag after each flower is processed to avoid crushing.
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